Boundaries are taken to be unseen, immeasurable limits or barriers that simultaneously create and inside and an outside, separating us from others.

Bullying occurs when an individual(s) feels particularly insecure in a given context. It is triggered by change factors such as the arrival of a new employee, increased targets etc. A bully takes defensive action by projecting his, or her anxieties on to others. He/she tests the boundaries of colleagues. If a target’s boundaries are broken, that individual becomes a victim, a container for the unacknowledged and unwanted anxieties of the bully. The group dynamics evolve in such a way that the victim becomes increasingly isolated and unless boundaries are restored, the victim will be ‘disposed’ of. The bully will find another victim and the pattern will be repeated.

Bystander ‘A bystander is someone who does not become involved when come one else needs help’. Clarkson, P., (1996) The Bystander. London:Whurr.

Containment. We are all containers with many feelings including anxieties about our homes, families and work. We are containers of peace of mind, or torment. In psychoanalytical theory the concept of containment relates to child development, to the idea of a ‘holding environment’. Containment is a concept increasingly used in conflict management.

Double bind. The double bind is a ‘no win’ situation. Whatever an individual does, another perceives it as being ‘wrong’.

‘Those who deceive themselves are obliged to deceive others. It is impossible for me to maintain a false picture of myself unless I falsify your picture of yourself and of me. I must disparage you if you are genuine, accuse you of being a phoney when you comply with what I want, say you are selfish if you go your own way, ridicule you for being immature if you try to be unselfish and so on. The person caught within such a muddle does not know whether he is coming or going.’ (Laing, R.D., (1969) Self and Others. Middlesex, England:Pelican).

‘Recognition is that response from the other which makes meaningful the feelings, intentions and actions of the self’.  Benjamin, J., (1988) The Bonds of Love, Pantheon books, New York.

Shame is that fear that others will see our unworthiness. It is the inner experience of wanting to hide, the feelings of falling and the ground opening up and swallowing us.’  Flynn, R., (2001) Impediments to Organisational Effectiveness- social defences and shame in the workplace. Socio-Analysis. The Journal of the Australian Institute of Socio-Analysis.3.2:109-122.

Systems thinking is a discipline for seeing inter-relationships between parts of an organisation e.g. individuals, groups, culture, structure; the relationship between an organisation and its external environment and patterns of change.

True and false self. Where there is excessive splitting in the psyche of individuals, such as in bullying, a distance grows between fantasy and reality.

The true self is an active centre of personality, out of which creative doing grows. The false self is an imposter. (Eigan, M, 1996 Psychic Deadness, Northvale, New Jersey:Aronson).